Since many of these companies are global, there has been increasing interest on building and deploying knowledge bases on a global scale - both to leverage the knowledge and expertise that is distributed around the world, and also to make case bases available to all the regional support organizations to solve customer problems consistently worldwide (Borron, Morales, & Klahr 1996).
The principal AI-based technology that has been used in these customer support efforts is Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). "Cases" are used as the representational framework to capture knowledge of customer issues, problems and solutions, and general queries that customers have asked in the past. Providing a CBR search engine to end users allows them to find previous solutions that may help solve a particular customer's problem.
The financial benefits can be (and have been) enormous in terms of reduced escalations (less transferring of calls to more experienced technicians), reduced field visits by technicians (by solving more of the problems remotely on the phone), and reduced cost per call. Equally important are the benefits derived from improved customer satisfaction in having problems solved correctly on the first call. Improvements in the quality and consistency of customer support have enabled companies to improve customer loyalty, and differentiate themselves from their competitors in the marketplace.
As a result, the area of customer support has become a focal point for knowledge development and management. It is an area that is very costly to operate (many computer companies have tens of thousands of calls per day), but essential to a company's competitive positioning. There is an immediate need, and large payback in applying knowledge in customer support. Given this urgency, customer support organizations are developing a repository of knowledge, and defining mechanisms for effectively creating and managing knowledge.
Most notable in this activity are the product development organizations which are now creating knowledge bases (again as cases for CBR reasoning and retrieval) as part of the product development lifecycle. Thus, product development is responsible for creating and releasing new products, creating and releasing documentation, and creating and releasing knowledge bases.
The main recipients for the knowledge bases are the customer support agents who, once a new product is launched, must support customers using the new product. Typically there is a transition of ownership of the knowledge bases - from product development to customer support, who then maintain and expand the knowledge. Part of the "sign-off" of the knowledge bases coming from product development is a quality check by the customer support organization to ensure the knowledge is satisfactory for their use, and for their subsequent ownership.
On the usage side, other departmental organizations can benefit from the knowledge accumulating in these case bases. Sales organizations, for example, can access the knowledge bases to better understand customer problems and questions. Marketing, as another example, can access the knowledge to better determine requirements for subsequent new releases or new products, based on the knowledge base.
As a result, these knowledge bases are being made available on internal corporate intranets and/or on the external Internet. In the latter case, there has been significant benefit achieved by companies making their knowledge directly available to customers over the World Wide Web (see, for example, Broderbund Software's web site http://www.broderbund.com in the technical support area). Customers are now accessing case bases and solving their own problems through this knowledge sharing process.
Also, there are now several products that have taken case bases and packaged them for retail sale on CD-ROMs (see for example, Symantec's PC Handyman product and CyberMedia's First Aid 97 product) for direct use by PC users.
This latter point is particular important when comparing CBR to
text retrieval tools in the area of customer support. With text
retrieval, users are provided little guidance as to how to formulate
a query, or how to refine it. Users typically need to know what
they are looking for, and how to access the knowledge (e.g., what
keywords to use). CBR can alleviate this problem through the
question-asking dialog process. Often CBR and text retrieval
approaches can be complimentary. For example, when specific solutions
are known, they can be entered in cases; where there is research
required, text retrieval can provide a vehicle to access technical
notes or documents.
The advantages of a proactive dialog to help define the specific problem are even more pronounced when the user is a customer, someone typically unfamiliar with the problem domain and with the knowledge base. They often cannot even describe their problem correctly. Providing a simple dialog to elicit problem symptoms and features, makes the diagnostic process quicker and much easier for the user.
the process of creating, refining,
maintaining, monitoring and extending knowledge, and providing
delivery mechanisms for effectively accessing and retrieving knowledge.
Knowledge management becomes even
more complex within a global framework. There are a number of
key issues that companies need to address in global knowledge
capture and management (Klahr 1996). I summarize them as follows:
Each global company addresses these
issues in different ways depending on their business objectives,
operational infrastructures, and technical requirements.
As an example of one particular effort,
consider the global case base developed by Reuters (Borron, Morales,
& Klahr 1996). The principal roles and responsibilities that
were defined and used in that project (as shown in Figure 1) include
The Global Steering Committee
consists of the heads of customer support from each of the global
areas, plus a senior customer support representative from the
corporate headquarters. The Global Steering Committee meets periodically
(typically quarterly) to review project milestones, issues and
directions. Biweekly phone conference calls provide interim status
updates and address immediate issues and needs.
The Global Project Manager
leads the project and coordinates the development and deployment
efforts in the various global regions. Specific responsibilities
The Global Technical Manager
is responsible for supervising all technical aspects of the project,
The Area Project Coordinators
are responsible for the overall operation of their local region,
The Domain Owner is the person
responsible for a particular case base. Each case base contains
cases relative to a particular product. This segmentation of
knowledge based on product is one used by many companies. Customer
calls usually focus around the particular product the customer
is using, and problems or issues associated with that product.
A particular product case base is assigned for development to
the particular region that has the most expertise in the product.
The Domain Owner is the individual assuming ownership (content,
delivery, maintenance) of a product case base.
In some cases the Area Project Coordinator
(APC) can also be a Domain Owner for one or more product domains.
These added responsibilities for the APC can vary, and are based
on the APC's workload and domain expertise.
A Domain Owner can use multiple Case Authors to help author the knowledge in a particular case base. Again this is dependent on workload responsibilities and product expertise. Thus, many configurations are possible: an APC can fully author a small product case base, or can supervise a Domain Owner who has several Case Authors to author the knowledge. The Domain Owner is ultimately responsible for the knowledge content and organization within the assigned case base. That individual typically accumulates cases from the Case Authors, looks for redundancies, and ensures consistency and style.
The Reuters project is one example of a company leveraging expertise that exists around the world and putting that expertise into a single knowledge base, which is then distributed to all its global sites. They have established a global organization and infrastructure to support the project and technical requirements. CBR is the technology used to represent the knowledge, and the mechanism for search and retrieval. The customer support area has become a focal point for knowledge creation and sharing.
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