Training or Aiding?
Instructional System Design
Knowledge and Skill Requirements
Effectiveness and Efficiency
For System Knowledge...
For Operational Knowledge...
Training vs. Aiding
Self-Paced Training Materials (Programmed Instruction)
Integrated Learning Systems (ILS)
- Process of managing people's experiences so that they gain the requisite
knowledge and skills that give them the potential to perform.
- Extent to which this potential is created depends on the nature of training
experiences, as well as the aptitudes and abilities.
of the personnel being trained.
- An investment in people.
- Involves downstream recurring costs.
- Focuses on augmenting task performance directly.
- Emphasis on task-specific behaviors to be prompted and enhanced.
- Investment in technology.
- Upstream capital costs.
- Is the choice training or aiding?
- Is it an issue of balance?
- How should training and aiding be integrated to best accomplish objectives?
- Are the two types of investments (people vs technology) comparable?
- Define the tasks and duties of personnel, particularly the tasks that must
be certified through the use of training equipment or simulators.
- Identify the prerequisite knowledge and skills found in the target
population to be used in operating the system.
- Define the training requirements by determining additional training that
will be needed by training population.
- Define methods for training the required knowledge and skills.
- Identify the training equipment and simulation required to support the
- Prepare the course material.
- Evaluate the course by presenting it formally.
- denotes information about the way in which tasks are performed.
- concerns "how to work the system"
- refers to information about the system within which operators, maintainers and
managers perform their tasks.
- relates to "how the system works"
- trainee passively consumes knowledge.
- classroom lecture and discussion.
- video and films.
- laboratory demonstrations.
- trainees actively utilize knowledge in a manner designed to clarify, reinforce
and extend operational and system knowledge.
- viewed as carefully planned surrogates for actual experience.
- equipment mock-ups.
- flat panel simulators.
- Part-task simulators.
- full-scope simulators.
- induced malfunctions.
- practice with real equipment.
- on-the-job apprenticeship.
- on-the-job responsibility.
- the degree to which a method can successfully support the acquisition and
retention of the desired type of knowledge and/or skill
- defined in terms of time and resources required to achieve success: to be
- passive training methods are both effective and efficient for imparting all
aspects of system knowledge.
- Active methods are effective but inefficient for system knowledge.
- Actual experience is very inefficient.
- Passive methods are not effective
- Active methods and actual experience are effective but incur varying levels of
- inefficiency of actual experience can be compensated for by the fact that
personnel can do other useful things as they are gaining operational knowledge.
- In summary, there are a variety of ways to train and aid people.
- generally, more highly trained people need less aiding, and those with less
training require more aiding.
- how should one balance training and aiding to accomplish to accomplish the
operational objectives of the system in a cost-effective manner?
- trade-offs pursued in terms of performance, time and cost.
- If a particular combination of training and aiding provides a performance
advantage compared to alternative mixes, it will be chosen if time and costs are not adversely affected.
- produce more flexible personnel who can cope with changing demands
- higher capital cost of acquisition
- fairly rigid relative to new demands
- involves setting up organized classes
- can combine logical, structured presentations in concepts as well as hands-on
- organized class approach teaches a group of people how to use the same hardware
and software at the same time.
- a skilled user/trainer works with a new computer user in several intensive
sessions extending over several weeks.
- On-the-Job Training(OJT).
- occurs in the real work environment.
- allows a new office worker to learn how to use the equipment by working at the
job under the direction of a co-worker, a supervisor or a work group manager.
- value gained from OJT depends upon the teaching or coaching ability of the
trainer to whom the new worker is assigned.
- Materials used are are specially produced for each hardware and software product.
- self paced training materials help employees work individually through much of
the training program.
- material presented in small bits of structured information.
- well suited for training in machine operation, where skills are clear and
- also Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI).
- one-to-one interactive learning experience between the student and the computer.
- as good as the quality of instruction programmed.
- lacks human element.
- can be compared with live training since latest modules combine text with
audio, video clips, graphics, photographs and animation.
- training programs are directly embedded into company's application programs so
users can get "refresher" courses on demand -- something not possible with traditional classroom training or education.
- shorter learning time
- self-paced training
- cost effective to reproduce/distribute
- high upfront costs (expensive to develop)
- lengthy development process (1 hour of CBT can take 80 - 200 hours)
- role-playing scenarios.
- e.g. pre-recorded video of someone who acts as an interviewer
- motivates people to learn.
- during training, users make decisions, listen to feedback, answer questions,
solve problems and test skills.
- focus on real-world application skills rather than rote learning or rules or
- real-world scenarios simulate typical work situations that employees will face.
- video testimonials/interviews help understand how fellow employees feel about
some issues and problems.
- currently at Union Pacific (UP), the employees are learning 30% faster and
retaining 40% more than traditional training.
- computer-based systems.
- utilize computer as both an instructional medium and a management information
- consists of computer hardware and software that assists educators in
accomplishing education and training goals. (e.g. Courseware -- software that provides sequence of lessons on a network of
multiple microcomputers or terminals).
- "new technology for the classrooms of the future"
- capability to be able to generate instructional activities and adjust lesson difficulty.
- sequence based upon learner performance to provide appropriate and immediate
- adapt instruction to individual differences among learners making instruction
- method of teaching a course simultaneously at multiple sites using video.
- provides flexibility of learning
- reduces both cultural and geographical distance
- difficult to locate the instructor immediately.
- resistance from managers of companies to change