IV or Information Visualization has its roots far back in history. In the 12th century paper was extremely expensive and not available for scrap or to write notes on, so people had to develop ways to visualize information to aid in their memorization. One major technique is the creation of a room in your mind in which you place objects to represent information you need to remember. A good example may be a merchant who brings presents to people, if one of these people is allergic to peper then he may create a statue that is sneezing in the image of this person. IV in computers shows up in metaphors. A desktop metaphor etc. is a way of visualizing directories, files, and their contents.