V. Richard Benjamins1, 3, Dieter Fensel2, Asuncion Gomez-Perez4, Stefan Decker2, Michael Erdmann2, Enrico Motta5 and Mark Musen6
1Dept. of Social Science Informatics (SWI),
University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, email@example.com
2University of Karlsruhe, Institute AIFB, Germany, firstname.lastname@example.org
3Artificial Intelligence Research Institute (IIIA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Spain
4Faculdad de Informatica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain, email@example.com
5KMI, Open University, United Kingdom, E.Motta@open.ac.uk
6Stanford University, Section on Medical Informatics, USA, musen@smi.Stanford.edu
"Ask not what the community can do for you.
Ask what you can do for the community!"
The Knowledge Annotation Initiative of the Knowledge Acquisition Community (KA)2 is an initiative officially launched at EKAW-97 to develop an ontology that models the knowledge acquisition community (its researchers, topics, products, etc.). This ontology will form the basis to annotate WWW documents of the knowledge acquisition community in order to enable intelligent access to these documents. (KA)2 is an open joint-initiative where the participants are actively involved in (i) a distributive ontological engineering process to model the knowledge acquisition community (a domain ontology), and (ii) annotating webpages relevant for the KA community (the instances of the domain ontology).
(KA)2 aims at "intelligent" knowledge retrieval from the Web and automatic derivation of "new" knowledge. In other words, it aims at knowledge-based reasoning on the Web, as opposed to the more usual information retrieval. Another objective of the initiative concerns a distributive ontological engineering process.
There are three research topics involved in the initiative.
The knowledge acquisition community has to build its own ontology. This will be done in a distributive manner, using the Ontolingua environment. The current version of the ontology can be viewed at the European mirror site of the Ontolingua server of Stanford University. To view the ontology, login as "ontologias-ka2" with password "adieu007". The ontology for the KA community consists of seven related ontologies: an organisation ontology, a project ontology, a person ontology, a research-topic ontology, a publication ontology, an event ontology and a research-product ontology. At the moment (March 1998), we are organising the process how to establish a more definitive version of the ontology. The process will be collaborative and distributed.
The instances of the ontology have to be provided by so-called "provider agents". Instances appear distributively at the relevant web pages of each provider agent. Web pages are annotated using a new HTML tag, called ONTO. Enclosing web information within this tag makes the information accessible for an ontology-based webcrawler (see below). Examples of annotated web pages can be found at all provider agents. Instructions on how to annotate web pages are also available. The process of how to annotate the web pages of the knowledge acquisition community is still an open issue. There are several possibilities, ranging from one responsible person offering an annotation service to each provider agent taking care of its own pages. Provider agents have to register at the Ontocrawler by sending it a URL of an index file listing the URLs of all annotated web pages.
Given a query, an ontology-based webcrawler (Ontocrawler) has to access the web pages and use the ontology to provide answers. Depending on how rich the ontology is (e.g. the amount of inferencing allowing axioms), Ontocrawler can also deduce "new" information, that is not explicitly stored on the Web. Notice that such inferencing is very common in knowledge-based systems, but not at all for web search engines. Ontocrawler can be accessed at the University of Karlsruhe, and is part of the Ontobroker project. At Ontobroker, provider agents can register and update their web pages so that these will be considered by Ontocrawler. Ontocrawler takes user queries and responds with answers. Ontocrawler reasons with FLogic (Frame Logic), a formal language to represent frames (classes, attributes, values). Because the ontology is built in Ontolingua, translators need to establish the relation between Ontolingua and FLogic. Ontolingua has been used for "visibility" reasons, and because it provides a hypertext environment enabling easy inspection.
There are several agent communities involved for getting the (KA)2 initiative started, keeping it going, assuring its scientific content, making it a global collaborative effort and attracting industrial interest: coordinating agents, provider agents, ontopic agents, wise agents and business agents.
Coordinating agents are responsible for the daily matters of the initiative.
|Asuncion Gomez-Perez||Faculdad de Informatica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid||Ontology firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Enrico Motta||KMI, Open University, United Kingdom||Webtool agent||E.Motta@open.ac.uk|
SWI-UvA, the Netherlands
|Dieter Fensel||Institute AIFB, University of Karlsruhe, Germany||Recruiting email@example.com|
|Michael Erdmann||Institute AIFB, University of Karlsruhe, Germany||Annotation firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Stefan Decker||Institute AIFB, University of Karlsruhe, Germany||Ontobroker email@example.com|
|Mark Musen||Stanford University, Section on Medical Informatics, USA||"Window on USA" agent||musen@smi.Stanford.edu|
Wise agents are concerned with the scientific issues involved in the initiative.
|Bob Wielinga||SWI-UvA, the Netherlandsfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Rudi Studer||Institute AIFB, University of Karlsruhe, Germanyemail@example.com|
|Bill Swartout||ISI, University of Southern Californiafirstname.lastname@example.org|
|B. Chandrasekaran||Ohio State Universityemail@example.com|
|James Hendler||University of Maryland, USAfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Brian Gaines||University of Calgary, Canadaemail@example.com|
Provider agents provide the initiative with instances of the ontology. In other words, they have to annotate their web pages, using the KA ontology. At the kick-off meeting during EKAW'97, the following groups and people committed themselves to be a provider agent. The recruiting agent is responsible for attracting more researchers and groups.
|Andreas Abecker||DFKI, Germany|
|Nathalie Aussenac||IRIT, Univ. Paul Sabatier, France|
|Hans Akkermans||University Twente, the Netherlands|
|Sean Wallis||Univ. College, London, United Kingdom|
|Robin Boswell, Susan Craw||Robert Gordon Univ., United Kingdom|
|Enrico Motta||KMI, Open Univ., United Kingdom|
|Enric Plaza, Richard Benjamins||IIIA-CSIC, Spain|
|Christine Pierret||Univ. Rennes, France|
|Karlsruhe gang||AIFB, Univ. Karlsruhe, Germany|
|B. Chandrasekaran||Ohio State University, USA|
|Asuncion Gomez||Technical University of Madrid, Spain|
|Bob Wielinga, Richard Benjamins||SWI, Univ. of Amsterdam, the Netherlands|
|Nigel Shadbolt||Univ. of Nottingham, United Kingdom|
|Paul Compton, Tim Menzies||University of New South Wales, Australia|
|Derek Sleeman||University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom|
|Jan Treur, Frances Brazier, Niek Wijngaards, Frank van Harmelen, Annette ten Teije||Free Univ. Amsterdam, the Netherlands|
Clearly, this initiative can only succeed through active participation of the community. So we welcome each member of the KA community to join (KA)2. Please send an email to the recruiting agent in case you want to join our initiative.
Ontopic agents (from ontology topic) are researchers that contribute to the ontological engineering process to establish a consensual ontology of the KA community. This process is a collaborative effort of the KA community. There are about 15 groups of ontopic agents, each group being responsible for a particular research topic of KA. The following researchers form the ontopic agents group, along with the respective research topics.
|Name||Institution||Ontology topic interest|
AIFB, Univ. of Karlsruhe Germany
|Knowledge Management, Corporate Memories, Enterprise modeling|
|KMI, Open Univ., UK
SMI, Stanford Univ.
Asuncion Gomez Perez
|Univ. Twente, the Netherlands
UPM, Univ. Madrid, Spain
|Jan Treur, Catholijn Jonker, Frances Brazier||AI Group, Free Univ., The Netherlands||Agent-Oriented Approaches|
||Validation and Verification|
|Frank van Harmelen, Anntette ten Teije||AI Group, Free Univ., The Netherlands||Specification languages|
|Dieter Fensel||AIFB, Univ. Karlsruhe, Germany
SWI, Univ of Amsterdam
|Guus Schreiber||SWI, Univ. of Amsterdam, the Netherlands||Sisyphus-II|
|Nigel Shadbolt||Univ. of Nottingham, UK||Sisyphus-III|
|Rob Kremer, Brian Gaimes||Univ. of Calgary, Canada||Sisyphus-IV|
|Paul Compton, Tim Menzies||University of New South Wales, Australia||Ripple-down rules|
|Derek Sleeman||University of Aberdeen, UK
SWI, Univ. of Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Robert Gordon Univ., UK
|Knowlegde Acquisition through Machine Learning|
|Udo Hahn||Univ. of Freiburg, Germany
Univ. of Central Florida
|Knowledge Acquisition from Natural Language|
|Linkoping Univ., Sweden
Univ. of Kaiserslautern
|Distributed Modeling over the Internet|
|Dickson Lukose||Univ. of Calgary||KA through Conceptual Graphs|
If you are interested in becoming an ontopic agent, send an email to the managing agent, indicating to what the part of the ontology you want to contribute.
Business agents are responsible for exploring the possibility of external funding of the initiative and raising the interest of possible interested industries.
|Annejet Meijler||Intelligent Systems Lab Amsterdam-UvA, the Netherlandsfirstname.lastname@example.org|
In order to get the initiative started, an agenda has been setup with the most urgent things to be done.
|Establish a mailing list including all agents. Maintain mail archive||Webtool agent||Done at Nov. 25, 1997.
|Provide ontopic agents with useful webtools||Webtool agent||as soon as groups are organised|
|Get minimal amount of research groups (provider agents) involved.||Recruiting agent||done|
|Annotate web pages||Annotation agent, provider agents||two weeks after having registered as provider agent|
|Improving Ontobroker developed at Institute AIFB, University of Karlsruhe||Ontobroker agent||open|
|Look for interested industries, companies||Business agents||open|
|Suggest international project proposal for the initiative (Esprit, DARPA, etc.)||Wise agents||open|
To keep the initiative going, several ongoing activities have to be taken care of.
|Maintain mail archive||Webtool agent|
|Keep KA ontology up-to-date||Ontology agent|
|Get more provider agents involved||Recruiting agent|
Pointers that add more background on these ideas are:
Pointers to related work include:
We would like to thank all participants of the (KA)2 initiative. Richard Benjamins is supported by the Netherlands Computer Science Research Foundation with financial support from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), and by the European Commission through a Marie Curie Research Grant (TMR).