Group Psychological Abuse Scale
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Group Psychological Abuse Scale (GPA)
The GPA was developed from a factor analysis
of 308 former cult members descriptions of their =

groups. The following are its items, rearranged by
factor. I have found it very helpful in assimilating
the PCP Bandwagon. We have found it very useful
in differentiating cults from noncults, in recent
research carried on by Michael Langone- during
his appointment as fellow at the Danielsen Institute
at Boston University. I am going to suggest to
Michael that we dedicate it to the victims of the
Kelly cult.

Group Psychological Abuse Scale =

(Rated on 5 pt scales. R=3Dreverse scores)
Factor 1: Compliance =

R 1. The group does not tell members how to
conduct their sex lives.
4. Members are expected to postpone or give
up their personal, vocational,and educational goals
in order to work for the group.
13. Members are expected to live with other members.
14. Members must abide by the group's guidelines
regarding dating and intimate relationships.
18. Members are expected to serve the group's leaders.
R 21 Members are expected to make decisions
without consulting the groups leader(s).
28. Members are expected to consult with leaders
about most decisions, including those concerning
work, child rearing, whether or not to visit relatives, etc.

Factor 2: Exploitation
2. Women are directed to use their bodies for the =

purpose of recruiting or of manipulation.
3. The group advocates or implies that breaking the
law is okay if it serves the interests of the group.
6. Gaining political power is a major goal of the group.
12. The group approves of violence against outsiders
(e.g.,"satanic communists," etc.).
19 Raising money is a major goal of the group.
20. The group does not hesitate to threaten outside critics.
27. Recruiting members is a major goal of the group.
Factor 3: Mind Control
9. Members feel they are part of a special elite.
11. The group uses coersive persuasion and mind control.
15 .People who stay in the group do so because they
are deceived and manipulated.
R 22. Members are just as capable of independent
critical thinking as they were before they joined the group.
24. Mind control is used without conscious consent of members.
R 25. Members feel little psychological pressure from leaders.
26. The groups leader(s) rarely criticize members.
Factor 4: Anxious Dependency
R. 5 The group encourages ill members to get medical assistance.
7. Members believe that to leave the group would be
death or eternal damnation for themselves or their families. =

8. The group discourages members from displaying
negative emotions.
10 The group teaches that persons who are critical of the
group are in power of evil, satanic forces.
16 The group teaches special exercises (e.g., meditation,
chanting, speaking in tongues) to push doubts or negative
thoughts out of consciousness.
17 Medical attention is discouraged, even though there may
be a medical problem.
23. The group believes or implies its leader is divine.
Chambers, W. V., Langone, M.D., Dole, A. A., & Grice, J. W. (1994). The
Group Psychological Abuse Scale: A measure of the varieties of cultic abu=
Cultic Studies Journal, vol 111, no 1, p88-117.
Howl away boys!